usually, the external supply voltage powered through Vin pin is connected to the 5-to3.3 DC-DC converter so everytime is always suggested to check which DC-DC is mounted on before applying any kind of power voltage.
From DOIT ESP32 DevKit schematic that component seems to be the NCP1117 (datasheet) that can
operate with up to 20 V input.
In mass production batches of this kind of boards, some of the secondary parts can be replaced (for an upgrade, for parts more or less available at that moment, etc.) and, hardly, those modifications are reported in some way.
This for saying that we suggest a range more limited for safety (for example AMS1117 is another DC-DC used with ESP32 modules in other boards that supports up to 15 V input).
Hope this can help you.